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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations on Tuesday for how primary care doctors can help patients battle obesity.

After reviewing recent studies on the topic, USPSTF concluded in a statement, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, that behavior-based weight loss interventions — techniques like goal-setting and counseling on diet and exercise — should be offered to all adults considered obese, or those who have a body mass index of 30 or more.

These interventions could potentially help people lose weight more successfully, ward off regaining the weight, and slow down or eliminate the progression of type 2 diabetes. What’s more, the interventions are likely safe for everyone.

With obesity prevalence in the United States hovering around 40 percent, doctors and patients alike are ready to welcome any strategies that might help. Of course, diet and exercise are helpful — even if they sound like simple solutions to a complicated disease — but these new guidelines add new solutions that can make a real difference.

In an editorial responding to USPSTF’s guidelines, Drs. Debra Haire-Joshu and Felicia Hill-Briggs note that obesity occurs more frequently among minorities and those in poverty. These people are far less likely to have health insurance, let alone the money to see a doctor. So it’s possible that doctors who implement these behavioral interventions may never see those who would benefit from them the most.

Doctors, according to some studies, may not be aware of how much social determinants like health care access factor into weight loss. Add to this the fact that medical offices are often too pressed for time to run behavioral programs, and some are skeptical that meaningful counseling sessions can take place.

Fortunately, there are other health care professionals who work inside and outside of medical offices who are able to help, including behavioral therapists and dietitians.

Of course, there are also medications; five are FDA-approved for the treatment of obesity. USPSTF found that, in general, medications improved weight loss when combined diet and exercise. However, as with any medication, these therapies have the potential to cause side effects — which is why patients should look into the risks and benefits when considering medical obesity management with their doctors.

For people with certain types of obesity, who have additional medical problems or who haven’t had success with other approaches, there is also bariatric surgery and, more recently, a growing availability of endoscopic interventions.

Yet, because it focused on outpatient care for the study, USPSTF did not look at surgical therapies when formulating its recommendations.

In another article published with the study, Dr. Susan Yanovski wrote, “Although primary care clinicians do not perform bariatric surgery, they have an important role in identifying patients who might potentially benefit, advising patients to consider surgery as an option, and providing referral to a trusted bariatric surgical specialist or program for evaluation.”

So, although the new guidelines support the idea that diet and exercise can still help with weight loss, it’s important to note that these interventions don’t fully address the full scope of the obesity problem — it’s a complicated disease process, where metabolism, emotion, lifestyle, genetics, and social context combine.

USPSTF’s recommendations will help doctors target behavior, but more avenues, ranging from new medical and surgical therapies to national policies, must be explored in order to completely address the obesity epidemic.

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Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago(CHICAGO) -- The 11-year-old girl in desperate need of a new heart who was surprised by Drake last month in a heartwarming viral video spoke out after her successful heart transplant surgery, saying: "I felt more alive."

"It’s so much better than my other heart," Sofia Sanchez, 11, said in an interview Wednesday with ABC News of her new heart, just weeks after her transplant surgery.

Sofia, who was diagnosed with heart disease cardiomyopathy, was admitted to Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago in June.

She recounted her first reaction after finding out she was getting a new heart: "I was like, 'Bye-bye cardiomyopathy heart.'”

She had open-heart surgery in July to connect a ventricular assist device, a mechanical pump that the hospital said served as a "bridge" to her eventual transplant.

Sofia filmed a video before her 11th birthday in August asking for two presents: a visit from "In My Feelings" singer Drake and a new heart.

Less than one week after Sofia’s “Kiki Challenge” dance video — featuring her still hooked to an IV — went viral, Drake visited her at the hospital.

Sofia told ABC News Wednesday that she and Drake "got along pretty well."

The international music star even gave her his personal cell phone number, which she "pinky-promised" she wouldn't give away to anyone else.

Nearly one week after meeting Drake, Sofia learned a donor heart was available. She underwent the nine-hour heart transplant on Aug. 27.

After waiting 48 days for a new heart and undergoing the successful transplant, Sofia was discharged from the hospital on Sept. 12.

She has spent the past week continuing to recover at the Ronald McDonald House near Lurie Children’s.

While Sofia said she is enjoying playing sports and doing things she couldn't do with her old heart, she still urged others not to forget the many other children who may still be waiting for a life-saving organ donation.

"There’s a lot of kids that are waiting for a transplant," she said. "And it's important for everybody to be a donor."

Sofia's mom, Natalie Sanchez, said that after her daughter got the new heart, "Every day gets better and better."

"She has a second chance at life, and it's amazing," she said, adding they are incredibly "grateful" for the "donor and his family."

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Mary Free Bed Rehabilitation Hospital (GRAND RAPIDS, Mich.) -- They call it "rehability": the intersection of rehabilitation and ability. We call it "slaying."

No matter what you call it, prepared to get inspired by a video created by Mary Free Bed Rehabilitation Hospital in Grand Rapids, Michigan. They paired former patients and campers with Mary Free Bed staffers to show off their jaw-dropping moves. The whole production was choreographed by Marisa Hamamoto, a ballet and contemporary dancer for more than 20 years.

Called "Miracles in Motion," the video celebrates National Rehabilitation Awareness Week, Sept. 16-22. It's a cause close to Hamamoto, who discovered ballroom dancing while recovering from a rare spinal cord stroke that left her temporarily paralyzed from the neck down. In 2015, she founded Infinite Flow, an inclusive dance company, to use dance as a tool to empower people with disabilities.

"There are over one billion people in the world with a disability who have little access to dance. I think it's my destiny to do something about it," Hamamoto said.

Eric Westover broke all four of his limbs in a motorcycle accident. His right leg was amputated above the knee, his left leg below the knee. Eric, 39, completed inpatient and outpatient therapy at Mary Free Bed and now mentors other patients.

"I was pretty nervous at first," Westover said, "I haven't really danced a lot before. I was unaware of what to expect. Marisa made it very easy and it was enjoyable. It was fun."

Dr. Sam Ho, medical director of the Spinal Cord Injury Program at Mary Free Bed participated in the video -- and in ballroom dancing classes with his wife.

"You work hard enough, you will get to where you want to get to. So everyday we are interacting with patients, hopefully people will be inspired to try harder because every day is meaningful."

Thirteen-year-old Mackenzie Haag is a longtime camper at Junior Wheelchair Sports Camp. She was so invested in Miracles in Motion she missed her first day of eighth grade so she could attend rehearsals. Mackenzie, her father and brother have familial spastic paraplegia.

“People think because I’m in a wheelchair I am not able to do things an able body person can do,” Mackenzie said. “Anybody would get worn out doing this and we are doing it and we made it look amazing!”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- New research published in the British Medical Journal today reminds us that it might be time to scrutinize our yogurt labels more closely.

Yogurt is a good source of protein, calcium, and vitamins like B2 and B12. It also can contain live lactic-acid producing bacteria that falls under the category of “probiotic,” lauded for its potential to improve digestive and other health. But store-bought yogurt may also contain more sugar than anyone suspected.

The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Leeds and the University of Surrey in 2016, looked at approximately 900 individual yogurt products available in five major UK supermarkets. Each of these yogurts were then sorted into eight different categories, and compared: children’s, dairy alternatives, dessert, drinks, flavored, fruit, natural/Greek, and organic.

The nutritional content of the yogurts varied widely, but one thing was clear: most of them had lots of sugar. The authors of the study calculated the median amount of sugar per 100 grams for each category of yogurt that they studied, and compared sugar averages. Dessert yogurts had the highest amounts of sugar, 16.4 grams, which isn’t too surprising. What is surprising is that yogurts marketed as organic had the next highest median amount of sugar, 13.1 grams. And yogurts marketed toward children also had very high sugar, 10.8 grams. For context, the daily recommended sugar content per day for children ages 4 to 6 is no more than 19 grams, and many of these yogurts contributed significantly to that maximum. Overall, fewer than one in ten of all the yogurts studied -- 9 percent -- qualified as low-sugar.

Natural/Greek yogurt was the only category appreciably different than the rest, with a lower median sugar content of 5 grams, as well as a higher median protein content.

It’s important to note that food labels in the UK report nutritional contents differently than in the U.S. Every component is based on a standard 100 gram portion rather than the classic U.S. “serving size,” which is determined by individual food manufacturers. Regardless, these levels of sugar are dramatic.

This information is significant when considering that obesity, even among children, is on the rise around the world. Dr. J. Bernadette Moore, nutrition scientist and lead author of the study, said that her concerns as a parent were the initial inspiration for the research. “I did not know that the yogurt I was giving my child had [so much] added sugar in it,” Moore said in a statement to ABC News.

Other studies have pointed out a tendency for people to believe products labeled “organic” are inherently healthier, which Moore fears is playing into consumer choices about yogurt that is actually high in sugar. But she is quick to point out that yogurt is not the worst option in the grocery store: “If you are a parent and you are choosing between a Coca-Cola, a chocolate biscuit [cookie]…or a sweetened yogurt, then by all means give your child the yogurt -- you’ll get some calcium, you’ll get some protein, and you may get some probiotic.”

Still, the amount of sugar in many commercially available yogurts is less than ideal. Moore advocates for more transparent food labeling, and changes from the yogurt industry itself.

Moore thinks that if individuals know more about sugar in yogurt, they can make different decisions for themselves and their families. When introducing foods to children, why not choose natural yogurt instead? People can also make their own yogurt at home, as some cultures have been doing for centuries.

Even when opting for natural or homemade yogurts, it’s important not to load it with toppings that can sabotage efforts to decrease your sugar intake. One study showed that given the choice, people inadvertently added an average of 13.6 grams of sugar to their yogurt with things like honey and jams.

So unless it’s using artificial sweeteners, if your yogurt tastes sweet, it’s probably because there’s sugar in it.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Like most expectant parents, Sydnee Michaels was overcome with emotions, questions and fears when she found out she was pregnant.

But one thing she wasn't worried about? Having proper child care once she returned to work.

The 30-year-old has been playing on the LPGA Tour since 2012 and became pregnant during the 2017 season. She gave birth to her daughter Isla in November and returned to the tour in March of this year. While many athletes might harbor concern about balancing impending motherhood with a demanding physical career, Michaels knew she had the built-in support of her association behind her.

"When I found out I was pregnant, I wasn't like, 'Oh my god, what am I going to do?' or 'Guess I have to stop playing now to raise a family,'" she recalls. "I was immediately able to say, 'I can make this work and try to do both the best that I can.' I've seen other moms on tour do it and excel, so I knew it wasn't a death sentence for my career.

"It takes a little more effort and dedication, and a lot more luggage, but it's more than possible," Michaels says. "Knowing that my child would be well taken care of every week while traveling with me was such a relief. I didn't have to ever worry about that aspect."

The LPGA has offered a free child-care program for all of its players and staff members since 1993. The association previously had occasional day care services, run by local volunteers offered at various tournaments, but due to the overwhelming popularity with the mothers on tour, they decided to make it a permanent fixture. Traveling from tournament to tournament across North America, two full-time employees and a slew of volunteers provide hugs, snuggles, field trips and educational activities.

The LPGA was the first sports league to offer such a program and remains one of the few to do so, despite the number of high-profile female athletes becoming parents while competing. Neither the WNBA nor the NWSL offer league-wide child care, in part because players are never all in the same place at one time, but some individual teams do provide day care.

The WTA, similar to the LPGA in many ways because of its traveling tournament structure, offers childcare at the four Grand Slam events, but not during the rest of its season -- unlike, ironically, the ATP, which offers it throughout the year.

Players like Serena Williams and Victoria Azarenka have recently spoken out on the topic, but things have yet to change.

"It's really important to build these nurseries, because we have the resources for it," Azarenka told "Good Morning America." "Maybe there wasn't so much a need for them as there is now. I think the tendency will be to bring even more children on tour."

A confidential survey by espnW of 37 women who reached or returned to professional competition after having children was conducted. When asked about child care, only seven said they have league or team-provided care, and about 75 percent of those surveyed said they rely on more than one form of child care, including family, sitters or bringing their children along to practice or the gym.

The LPGA's program has been sponsored by Smucker's since its inception, and is managed by Bright Horizons Child Care. A truck treks from city to city, across state lines and occasionally country borders, between hotel conference rooms, schools, church basements, city halls -- anywhere with space, really -- and carries all the supplies and toys that make the program a familiar space for kids in a unfamiliar place. While the physical location changes weekly and the armed police officers outside the doors don't exactly make it look like a typical day care experience, it's home for the 19 children who are signed up for this season.

Two-time major champion Cristie Kerr, who has a 4-year-old son who frequently travels with her, calls it a "life saver."

"I wouldn't be able to do this without the day care," Kerr says. "And they not only give you the time to play, but also the time to practice and rehab, and anything else that we need. My son loves it. He has so many friends there and he asks to go to all the time, even when there isn't a tournament."

Director Bardine May has been with the program since 2003 and has worked with 90 children from 16 different countries over the years. She and an assistant director offer a slew of activities for the children, who range in age from six weeks to 12 years old, and even helped homeschool Karine Icher's 7-year-old daughter during the school year. (Most of the school-age children don't travel during the academic year and are in the program mostly during the summer months.) With tee times scheduled throughout the day, the child care program often opens its doors as early as 5 a.m. and can be open until 9 p.m. It makes for long days, with few days off during the peak of the North American portion of the schedule, but May insists it's all worth it.

"It's rewarding to pretty much raise these kids from birth to 6. Well, and beyond, because they keep coming back for summers -- even our teenagers come back and hang out with us," May says. "I love being able to play a part in allowing these moms to have their careers and their families and not having to choose between the two. And it's also allowing their children to have these wonderful experiences."

And the program has certainly yielded successful results on the course as well: Kerr has won five tournaments since becoming a parent, Catriona Matthew has won twice (including the British Open just 11 weeks after giving birth to her second child) and Juli Inkster, one of the most revered players in tour history, won 16 times -- including four major titles -- after giving birth to her second child in 1994.

According to May, she has had to call parents only twice for emergency medical situations in her 15 years on the job. She can remember only one incident where the police on site needed to be involved, and even that -- on which she declined to give details -- was resolved quickly and without incident, she said. However, the staff is cautious of overzealous fans -- hence the armed police officers standing outside the doors -- and doesn't share the weekly locations with the public.

But even the presence of officers is apparently normal to the children at this point. "Even though they're armed, our kids consider them like family, because year after year, we have the same ones working with us in each place," May says.
LPGA 'baby boom'

In her first years in the role, there were 27 children on any given day. The number has been dwindling since, and several players -- most notably Annika Sorenstam and Lorena Ochoa -- made the choice to retire before starting a family. However, with the LPGA currently experiencing a baby boom of sorts, the league is adding a third full-time staffer to the team.

Two-time major champions Stacy Lewis and Suzann Pettersen are both currently expecting, and Gerina Piller and Brooke Pancake both recently gave birth and expect to return to the tour next season. Other players have hinted they are considering starting a family and are closely watching to see how the new moms do. May jokes she always knows who is hoping to have a child soon because they tend to start being extra friendly to her when they see her around.

Heather Daly-Donofrio, a former player and now the LPGA's chief communications and tour operations officer, had her daughter Hannah, now 12, during her golf career. She still attends the program occasionally during her summer vacation. Daly-Donofrio knows just how vital it can be.

"We're so happy about this current baby boom," she said. "I think we're going to have six or seven infants next year in the program, which is going to be a lot of fun, and I'm excited for the new moms too. ... We [at the LPGA] want to provide opportunities for our players to pursue their dreams through the game of golf, and if having a family is part of that pursuit, we want to ensure that we have programming in place to help them achieve that."

While the child care program is a cherished benefit during the tournaments in North America (including stops in the Bahamas and Hawaii), it's not offered during the rest of the overseas portion of the schedule. As the tour now includes more stops in Europe and Asia than ever before -- including 12 events during the 2018 season -- that has become an increasing problem for some players.

For Michaels, it has meant being forced to skip the overseas tournaments this season. With her husband in a full-time job, and unable to afford a traveling nanny, and unwilling to leave her young daughter at this point, Michaels is hopeful the program will soon include such tournaments. She has played in 12 of the 23 tournaments this season (through the IndyWomen in Tech Championship), and has made the cut three times. Because a player doesn't get paid unless they make the cut, this makes it all the more important they have the ability to play in as many events as possible.

"When I played, we only went out of the country four or five times, but now we go to 14 different countries," Daly-Donofrio says. "Especially given the number of new children, we'll certainly be talking with our new moms about what their needs are when they go overseas. It's something that is top of mind for us and something that we would hope to expand in the future."

Knowing what her peers in other sports have to deal with in terms of child care, or lack thereof, Michaels feels grateful for the LPGA's program, despite its limitations.

"I think finding that balance is the hardest part for any working mom, and coming to understand that the kids are fine when you're not there," she says. "It's tough, but obviously my motivation for my career didn't magically go away either when I became pregnant.

"I hope that we're an inspiration for women and mothers to keep pursuing their dreams. If you have the dedication and the drive to do something, then figure it out. Just do what you got to do to define yourself. I think that's the coolest part of having this program for me -- that we're able to be inspirational to somebody somewhere."

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BY: DR. NICKY MEHTANI

(NEW YORK) -- More than 230,000 children under 15 months of age were treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments between 1990 and 2014 due to infant walker-related injuries, according to a new study published in the journal Pediatrics.

More than 6,500 of those were cases of skull fracture, according to the study, whose authors actively support the American Academy of Pediatrics’ ongoing call for a ban on the manufacture and sale of infant walkers.

Walkers designed to let children in the five to 15-month age range walk around in a frame that holds them upright have a decades-long history of controversy.

Baby walkers have prompted safety concerns compelling enough for Canada to have banned them in 2004 and for advocacy groups in the U.S. to have been petitioning for their ban since as far back as 1992.

Yet, infant walkers are still selling, and they remain a major cause of injury -- sometimes fatal injury -- among babies.

“There is no known advantage or benefit of using an infant walker,” said Dr. Gary Smith, the study’s senior author and the director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in an interview with ABC News.

“Yet, as a pediatric emergency physician, I’ve seen hundreds of these injuries," he said. "And I am face-to-face with the parents… These are good parents, they aren’t neglectful. They simply missed seconds of time [during which] these walkers put their child in danger.”

In a walker, an infant can move at a pace of up to four feet per a second —- that’s far faster than a child that young usually moves, and a speed that “even the best parents in the world can’t move quickly enough to outpace,” Dr. Smith said.

Nearly three quarters of the injuries occurred after the walker and child fell down stairs. Other causes included falls out of the walker and injuries that occurred because the walker gave the child access to something they wouldn’t typically be able to reach, such as hot objects that cause burns.

The number of infant walker-related injuries did decrease dramatically during the study period -- from 20,650 in 1990 down to 2,001 in 2014.

“It is a rare event to see such a dramatic drop in injuries -- almost unheard of,” Dr. Smith acknowledged. This drop was attributed in part to the implementation of safety standards requiring changes to the design of the walkers in 1997.

New walkers were required to be wider than a standard doorway or have a built-in mechanism that would cause a walker to stop rolling if one or more wheels went over the edge of a step.

Then, in June 2010, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a mandatory safety standard with even more stringent requirements for infant walker design. This study found that the number of walker-related injuries declined by 23 percent in the four years after the federal mandatory safety standard went into effect, compared to the four years prior.

While the product warning labels and educational campaigns have been effective, they do not address the root of the problem.

“The CPSC has taken a risk-reduction approach, which is different than the risk-elimination approach which Canada has taken,” Dr. Smith explained.

“In my opinion, that is not enough,” he said. “These are major injuries when they occur, and they are completely preventable.”

Dr. Nicky Mehtani is an internal medicine physician at Johns Hopkins Hospital and a part of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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WPVI-TV(PHILADELPHIA) -- A mother is asking for her son's wheelchair to be returned in one piece after she said it was stolen from outside her Philadelphia home last weekend. Ryan Lewis, 8, has cerebral palsy and depends on the customized electric wheelchair to get around, his mother said.

"If Ryan’s chair still in one piece, I would like it to be returned to him," Meghan Johnson told ABC News. "I’m still hopeful that they return the chair."

Johnson, 40, has been a single parent to her son since the boy's father died of a stroke four years ago. On Saturday, she said she and Ryan returned home after grocery shopping, and Johnson briefly left the chair outside as she carried Ryan into the house.

"I was coming downstairs, I was looking out the window of my bedroom, and I noticed that Ryan's wheelchair wasn't there anymore," Johnson said. "I don't understand how a human person could steal something from an innocent little child. My child hasn't done anything to anybody."

"He has cerebral palsy. He was born with that. I don't understand how people can be so cruel to him," she added.

Because Johnson doesn't have a car, Ryan's electric, custom-fitted wheelchair is key to helping them move around. While she said their insurance will replace it, it will take months for them to build it. In the meantime, she was given a temporary chair by another mom. Her friends are also fundraising to help her afford to rent a motorized wheelchair.

"This generous woman dropped off her son's old wheelchair today so he can use that to go to school," Johnson said.

But why someone would steal Ryan's wheelchair in the first place is something she can't understand.

Rita Hertzog, 39, said she has been friends with Johnson for more than three decades.

"It's a terrible thing," Hertzog told ABC News. "He needs this chair and he relied on it."

"I can’t believe somebody stole a wheelchair from a child," Hertzog added.

Hertzog said Johnson has overcome a lot of adversity. Johnson said she had a brain aneurysm eight years ago when she gave birth to Ryan. Johnson needed a few years to recover, during which her partner and Ryan's father, Rick Lewis, quit his job to take care of them both. Four years later, Lewis died after suffering a stroke and Johnson and Ryan have been on their own ever since. Johnson is currently not working because of her condition and the demands of caring for her son.

"Her life has been filled with lots of different tragedies and events that have one after another happened," Hertzog said. "It’s just incredible not only because they all happened to her, but because she has overcome each one each time."

Through it all, mother and son have stuck together -- and been each other's source of strength.

"She needs her son as much as he needs her," Hertzog said.

Since the theft on Saturday, people in their community have stepped up to help Johnson and Ryan.

"It’s a testament to how love will always wins," Hertzog said.

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iStock/ThinkstockBY: DR. NICKY MEHTANI

(NEW YORK) -- A daily aspirin may have more risks than benefits if you’re over 70, according to a new study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine. Yet aspirin, called a “wonder drug” against heart disease, is taken regularly by about 50 percent of adults nationwide.

The clinical trial, called ASPREE -- Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly – was conducted by researchers at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia and studied healthy elderly adults who took a low dose (100 mg) of aspirin daily over a nearly five year period.

What did the study find?

Aspirin, known to help fight heart disease in those at risk, did NOT improve life expectancy free from dementia or disability for healthy adults over 69. The rate of death, dementia, or development of a persistent physical disability (lasting over 6 months) was the same among people who took aspirin and those taking a placebo pill.

Aspirin, like any medicine, has side effects, and can cause an increased risk of bleeding in the digestive tract and brain. The people who were taking aspirin in this study had a 3.8 percent chance of bleeding; those who weren’t taking it had a 2.8 percent chance of bleeding.

The most concerning consequence in healthy adults over 69 was an increased risk of death, including deaths due to cancer. The risk of death, from any cause, was 5.9 percent in the aspirin group and 5.2 percent in the placebo group. Cancer was the major contributor to the higher mortality rate: 3.1 percent of people taking aspirin died of cancer compared to only 2.3 percent people not taking it.

What do they mean by “healthy elderly adults”?

ASPREE looked at the effects of daily low-dose aspirin in “healthy” older adults who had no known history of heart disease, strokes, dementia, or other significant chronic illnesses. All Caucasians were 70 or older and Black and Latino people were 65 and older.

Most of our current knowledge on aspirin’s efficacy has come from studies on people who had heart problems -- a history of heart attacks, strokes, or other cardiovascular diseases. In this sicker population, studies are clear: aspirin helps decrease mortality rates, prevent heart attacks and strokes, and reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.

An important note: this study does NOT suggest that people should stop taking aspirin if they’ve had a history of heart disease. But the results do mean that doctors may re-think aspirin’s role in the prevention of heart disease.

How good is the new evidence?

In short, the new evidence is quite strong. The ASPREE trial was large, including more than 19,000 people from 34 places in the U.S. and 16 places in Australia. It was a randomized clinical trial (RCT), the most reliable type of research -- half of the people involved were randomly assigned to take low-dose aspirin daily and the other half was given a daily placebo, a pill that looks identical to aspirin but does not contain the active ingredient. People in the study had no way of knowing whether or not they were taking the active drug, nor did the doctors who gave them the pills. Large RCTs such as this one are widely regarded in the scientific community as the most useful in helping understand the effects of medications.

But there is a lot that this study did NOT tell us. The authors caution that since the increased death rate in the group taking aspirin was so small, it could have been a coincidence. Aspirin has been widely studied, and this negative effect goes against the results of many prior large studies. In addition, 91 percent of the people in the study were Caucasian, so the effects on Black and Hispanic people are harder to interpret.

The trial was also relatively short. The researchers followed people for about four and a half years. That’s not much time to detect potential effects of aspirin on conditions like Alzheimer’s and cancer, which take a long time to develop before they’re recognized and treated.

What are the current aspirin guidelines? Will they change?


The most recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines say there is “insufficient” evidence in regards to the benefits and harms of starting aspirin for people over the age of 69 who have no prior history of significant heart disease or strokes. For those between 60 and 69, the decision to start low-dose aspirin should be discussed by each patient with their doctor, and it will depend on their risk of bleeding and other factors. For people between the ages of 50 and 59 who have heart disease risk, daily low-dose aspirin is generally recommended.

Those guidelines won’t necessarily change. But the new research findings suggest that, among healthy adults over age 69, there might be enough evidence now to recommend against starting low-dose aspirin.

Does this mean I should stop taking aspirin?


No. Remember, this new research only applies to a small subset of the people who take aspirin daily. Medicine is applied one patient at a time, and guidelines are only guidelines: they don’t apply to everyone. Speak to your doctor before making any decisions regarding whether you should start or stop taking aspirin.

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GMA Photo Illustration/Getty(NEW YORK) -- Helicopter parents may hover and tiger moms may roar, but make room for the lawnmower parent whose approach to child-rearing is generating buzz.

In an essay recently published on the site Weareteachers.com, an anonymous educator calls the parenting style a "troubling trend."

"Lawnmower parents go to whatever lengths necessary to prevent their child from having to face adversity, struggle, or failure," the teacher wrote.

The post, titled "Lawnmower Parents Are the New Helicopter Parents & We Are Not Here for It," has been shared 12,000 times on the brand's Facebook page. The teacher, who wrote it, told a story of a seemingly reluctant father who dropped off a water bottle for his child at her school.

"'Hi, sorry,' the parent said sheepishly. He was in a suit, clearly headed to work (or something work-like)," the teacher recalled. “Remy kept texting me that she needed it. I texted back, 'Don’t they have water fountains at your school?' But I guess she just had to have it out of the bottle. He laughed, as if to say, 'Teenagers, am I right?'"

The teacher went on describing her reaction to the alleged encounter she had with the parent.

"I took a deep breath through my nose. 'Oh, I have one of those -- I love mine, too,' I said. But I’m pretty sure my eyes were saying, 'WHAT ON THIS ACTUAL EARTH,'" she wrote.

Named after the device used for cutting grass, a lawnmower parent will intervene or "mow down" any person or obstacle that stands in the way of them saving their child from any "inconvenience, problem or discomfort," according to a college professor who wrote a blog on the subject.

In that same blog, the professor notes how helicopter parenting is widely known for parents who hover or swoop in to "rescue" their kids whenever they're in trouble. Lawnmower parents, however, are geared more towards parents of older children where hovering "may be limited," she wrote.

"If you say, 'Oh, I took care of this for you,' it inadvertently gives that message of 'you can't do this yourself, you can't succeed,'" said Stephanie Samar, a clinical psychologist at the Mood Disorders Center of the Child Mind Institute. "That can lead to other problematic things -- may be increased anxiety, low distressed tolerance -- [a] discomfort that comes with having conflict helplessness about heir situation."

She went on, "This [lawnmower] parenting style really focuses on short-time goals for parents and their kids. Their question is, 'if I could make this easier for my child, why wouldn't I do that?'"

Samar told Good Morning America that focusing on short-term parenting goals will take away from the practice of important, long-term goals that kids can benefit from like resilency, grit, problem-solving, conflict resolution and coping skills.

One example: A parent connecting with a teacher on behalf of their child because he or she disagrees with a grade they received on an assignment.

Instead, the child, if capable, should learn to advocate for themselves, Samar noted.

"When parents are removing obstacles for their child they are really taking away that opportunity for kids to learn those problem-solving techniques," she said.

But Samar also points out that the anonymous teacher who wrote the piece on lawnmower parenting also addresses that children who may suffer from anxiety, depression or other forms of mental illness, may need assistance from their parents to tackle common life dilemmas.

"The parents of these students may, understandably, try to remove struggles and challenges from their child’s life because they’ve seen the way their child has responded to other struggles and challenges in the past," the teacher explained.

Samar said since every child isn't at the same level make sure you know, as the parent, when and how to step in.

Elisabeth Fairfield Stokes, a mother of two, told GMA that she has heard of a parenting style like lawnmower, but it was referred to as "snowplow" parenting.

“Lawnmower sounds like an even more aggressive version," she said in a statement. "I heard someone proudly describe themselves as such, how they clear any obstacles out of their child’s path so they can just do their thing."

In 2014, Stokes, 46, a professor at Colby College in Waterville, Maine, wrote a buzzed-about piece for Time magazine titled, "I Am a Helicopter Parent -- And I Don't Apologize."

Stokes said she first heard the term helicoptering (think involved, protective) while teaching. Later, her perspective changed after her daughter had turned 8 years old.

"She was in the situation that she was not able to advocate herself," Stokes recalled to "GMA" in April. "We were aware of the phenomenon of helicopter parents, so we held back a bit and we hesitated in terms of getting involved."

Although she said she faces criticism, Stokes doesn't mind the label of "helicopter mom."

"I believe in being involved, in being aware in what's going on and I don't mind if that's perceived as hovering," Stokes said.

As for advice to lawnmower parents who may face criticism, Stokes said it's better, rather, to focus on yours and your children's mental health as you raise them -- especially in teens, which she calls "extremely important."

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WCPO-TV(CINCINNATI) -- After one family said their baby was sent home with two months to live, neighbors and friends around the world have banded together to create early Christmas for the boy.

"We decided to make every day that he has left as amazing as it can be," Brody’s sister McKenzie Allen, 21, told ABC News. "We try to think of every fun thing that he would like to do to just bring a smile to his face."

Last year, the family took 2-year-old Brody to see Christmas lights displays and his face lit up with joy and excitement.

"He loves Christmas lights," Allen said. "So we decided to do Christmas early."

In May, Brody's family realized there may be something more serious wrong with him after he appeared dizzy, vomited and had difficulty walking.

"We got really worried because he just laid down on the floor and threw up and then was just drooling. It was terrible,” Allen said.

The family said they took Brody to a hospital where they were told the boy may have an inner ear infection. But when they took him to the children's hospital for treatment, Allen said doctors found four brain tumors.

Brody was in the hospital for treatment for the aggressive cancer for almost 100 days, the family said, but on Aug. 4, the doctors found another tumor and that the main tumor had grown significantly.

"That's when we had found out that the chemo treatment wasn't working," Allen said. "That moment was even worse than finding out he had cancer in the first place."

The doctors told the family that there is nothing more they could do for Brody and that he might have only two more months. He was released to go home.

"It’s was unimaginable. I really don’t have any word, but the best I can describe is my heart just instantly drops to the bottom of my stomach," Allen said. "I felt hopeless and scared. I was a little angry too, I mean he’s so young."

The family decided making the time that Brody has left the best life he could live. Three weeks ago, the family had a "birthday" party for him.

"We had an early birthday for him and just let him open presents and had a birthday cake and all sorts of fun stuff," Allen said.

On the family's Facebook page, which they said they set up a week after they found out Brody had cancer and now has 6,000 followers, they posted about throwing the early Christmas party for him and asked for decorations.

"He has no idea how sick he is," the boy’s father, Todd Allen wrote on the post. "He doesn't care. He just wants to have fun and enjoy every minute."

The family received an outpouring of support from neighbors and strangers in the community who brought them Christmas items, according to Allen. A week ago, their town of Colerain Township in northern Cincinnati started to decorate for Christmas too.

Some friends and neighbors have also set up early Christmas decorations at their homes to join the family.

"It's amazing," Allen said about the people who have joined "Team Brody." "We have people in New York that have decorations up and all across the United States.”

She said the family has also been contacted by people in Japan, the Philippines, Australia, Germany, Russia, Belgium, and Italy who want to send Brody Christmas cards.

Back at home, people in the community have organized a Christmas parade for him.

"Everybody is sending their personal Merry Christmas wishes to Brody," she said, adding some said they even put pictures of Brody on their Christmas trees.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Addiction has taken an immeasurable toll on millions of American families. Over the past several years, there has been a sharp increase in drug overdoses deaths in the midst of a growing opioid epidemic. Experts and public officials have tried to determine who is responsible and what can be done.

The Trump administration declared the crisis a "national public health emergency" in 2017.

A number of states have passed bills to fight the epidemic in their own states. Florida Gov. Rick Scott did just that this past spring, in a state that has seen over a dozen people killed each day by opioids alone.

Other organizations are creatively trying to combat the crisis and the disease of addiction in different ways.

Paul Pellinger is the co-founder and chief strategy officer of Recovery Unplugged, an addiction treatment center in Florida that has several locations around the US. He recently spoke to ABC News about how the center employs music to help those combatting addiction.

Pellinger is a certified counselor and has been working to fight addiction since 1989. He believes many professionals experience difficulty helping their clients understand their own emotions and the underlying issues that may have led to their addiction. He has found music helps create a safe space for clients to identify with others and discover their emotions. The hope is this personal discovery will help them develop empathy for themselves and their journeys as they work to combat their disease.

Since the center opened six years ago, Recovery Unplugged has used music to help engage clients with "existing evidence-based [mental health treatment] models."

Pellinger discussed one client, who he picked up shortly after the person completed a prison sentence. He was not comfortable opening up to Pellinger, but once he heard Marshall Tucker Band's Can't You See started playing on the radio in their car, his demeanor changed:

"This was one of the last songs I remember hearing before I went to prison," he told me.... Then he broke down crying. ‘This song became a catalyst for emotion with him,’ I remember thinking. I could have spent hours with this guy, asking good, open-ended questions like I was taught to do as a clinician and never got him to emote like a three minute song could. So I realized then, 'There's got to be a way to harness this."

Pellinger now incorporates music and song lyrics into sessions with clients. Recovery Unplugged will introduce clients to positive songs about recovery or addiction, with the goal of creating a sense of empathy and understanding to show their clients they are not alone in their recovery and there is hope.

“My goal was to establish a rapport with the clients, break down their defenses, help them learn new perceptions... and I realized that's what music can do,” says Pellinger.

Long term, Recovery Unplugged hopes to "break the cycle of addiction for decades to come." Pellinger believes, in the short term, the center will "save lives through the power of this new music approach."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- As Hurricane Florence pummels towards the Carolinas and neighboring states, many residents are bracing for what officials are calling "the storm of a lifetime," and its anticipated catastrophic flooding, storm surge and damaging winds.

The impending storm -- which is expected to make landfall Friday morning -- has prompted mass evacuations in coastal areas and is forecast to be one of the strongest hurricanes to hit the area in years.

"This will likely be the storm of a lifetime for portions of the Carolina coast," the National Weather Service spokesperson in Wilmington, North Carolina, said late Tuesday night. "I can't emphasize enough the potential for unbelievable damage from wind, storm surge, and inland flooding with this storm."

For those out of the path of the storm looking to help those impacted, it can be difficult to navigate the slew of humanitarian organizations and charity networks out there that are promising relief and aid for those impacted by the storm. Below is a roundup of all of the organizations that have been approved by the nonprofit group Charity Navigator as highly-rated organizations that are currently responding to areas affected by Florence.

The American Red Cross

The American Red Cross has already mobilized more than 1,500 disaster workers to aid in the relief efforts as residents hunker down or flee ahead of Florence. The American Red Cross is currently taking donations to aid in their response efforts -- specifically for those affected by Florence -- here.

Americares

The health-focused disaster relief organization, Americares has already deployed a response team to North Carolina ahead of Florence.

“The storm is on track to make a direct hit on the East Coast and impact much of the southern United States in the coming days,” Americares Director of Emergency Response Brian Scheel said in a statement Monday. “Our response team has been activated and is ready to meet the immediate health needs in affected communities.”

They are currently collecting donations for emergency medicine and other supplies specifically for those impacted by Florence here.

North Carolina Community Foundation


The North Carolina Community Foundation (NCCF) is a local humanitarian organization based in North Carolina that partners with local charities that support the community -- and is still ranked as a highly-rated charity currently providing aid to the Carolinas ahead of Florence.

You can learn more about how to support their relief efforts on the ground on their website.

GlobalGiving

The nonprofit crowdfunding organization GlobalGiving, which supports grassroots charity projects on the ground in areas affected, has launched a Hurricane Florence relief fund.

The fund will support immediate relief efforts such as food, water, and medicine but also invest in longer-term recovery projects to help residents rebuild their community after the storm recedes.

For animals: American Humane and the Charleston Animal Society


When these storms hit, animals -- especially those in a shelter -- are often extremely vulnerable as residents evacuate. If you are looking to help with the relief efforts for pet shelters, the national nonprofit organization American Human and the local Charleston Animal Society are both highly-rated organizations aiding in the Florence relief efforts specifically for four-legged residents of Virginia and the Carolinas.

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Courtesy Sam Williams(NEW YORK) -- The father of an American woman who was attacked by a giraffe on a wildlife reserve in South Africa last week has told ABC News that both his daughter, Katy Williams, and her 3-year-old son, Finn, are recovering well.

Jack Standish said he is relieved that Finn could be taken off a ventilator on Thursday, as it indicates the boy’s condition is improving. The boy is still being sedated.

Dr. Steve Ponde, Finn’s pediatric pulmonologist, said Katy Williams is being kept updated on her son’s condition, and was visibly relieved by the news of his recovery.

Dr. Coceka Mfundisi, the neurosurgeon involved in both the mother and son’s treatment, said Finn will have to undergo further surgeries later in his life, but they will only be cosmetic in nature to repair the damage to the boy’s head. Mfundisi said the child sustained a brain injury during the attack, but she doesn’t expect any long-term effects from that injury.

"I'm pleasantly surprised on how well they have both done, considering their injuries," Dr. Mfundisi told ABC News.

Standish was full of praise for the medical team treating his daughter and grandson, saying he is grateful that they saved his family. He also praised his son-in-law, Dr. Sam Williams, who witnessed the attack and drove off the giraffe.

"While they were under sedation, I sat by their side holding their hands, reading their favorite books and talking to them for hours," Sam Williams told ABC News. "Since family and friends arrived, we have been taking turns to be at their bedsides. I was so happy when Katy regained consciousness, and I could tell her how well she and Finn were doing under circumstances."

Standish said neither he nor Sam would want anything to happen to the animal, as the giraffe did what any wild animal would do when fearing their offspring are in danger. The female giraffe, which was with a 2-month-old calf, is believed to have attacked the young mom and her son because she felt threatened when they surprised her.

The Williams couple are both nature scientists, and Standish said that even though his daughter cannot speak yet, he has no doubt she would be distraught if anything happened to the animal as a result of the attack.

Standish also thanked thousands of well-wishers across the world, who he said have been praying and sending messages of support. He has requested that anyone who wants to contribute to the family’s mounting expenses donate to the family’s GoFundMe campaign.

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iStock/Thinkstock (WASHINGTON) -- The use of e-cigarettes has become an "epidemic” among children, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which said it is taking the most aggressive steps in the history of the agency to slow the rate at which young people become addicted to the product.

Fines and warning letters have been issued to e-cigarette retailers after the FDA found them unlawfully selling e-cigarette products to minors, including the popular brand Juul, the FDA announced Wednesday.

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said the agency recently received data confirming that more and more young people, even high school students, are using and becoming addicted to nicotine through e-cigarettes. The rate at which teenagers have become addicted to nicotine from e-cigarettes is alarming, he added.

"We're seeing an acceleration in the use of the cigarettes to levels that simply aren't tolerable,” Gottlieb told ABC News.

“We have access to data that tells us that the growth in youth use of the cigarettes has reached what I'm calling epidemic proportions and we need to step in and take action to try to stem that use to try to bring the rates of use among young people down, particularly high school students.”

The government targeted the retailers as a result of an "undercover blitz" of both physical stores and online retailers, the FDA said, adding that more than 1,100 warning letters and 131 fines were issued.

The agency is worried an entire generation of young people will be addicted to nicotine from using e-cigarette products, Gottlieb said.

Many e-cigarette products like Juul are intended to help adults move from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes that don't have some of the health risks like lung cancer that come with burning tobacco. But nicotine is not a benign substance and can have detrimental effects on a developing brain, Gottlieb said, adding that young people addicted to nicotine can also transition to smoking traditional cigarettes.

Because of that public health risk, Gottlieb said, the FDA is willing to take aggressive action such as pulling flavored liquid tobacco off the market or requiring manufacturers to limit the amount of nicotine to make it less addictive, even if that means fewer products are available for adults.

"We think these cigarettes can offer a potentially less harmful alternative for adult smokers so we don't want to see these products eliminated from the market,” he said. “But the availability of these products for the adults cannot come at the expense of hooking a whole generation of young people on e-cigarettes.

“And if we have to narrow the off-ramp for adults in order to close the on-ramps for kids, that's a step we're prepared to take.”

Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar Wednesday released a statement in support of the decision.

"No child should be using any tobacco or nicotine-containing product," Azar said in a statement.

"We commend the FDA for the critical, immediate and historic action to address the sale and marketing of these products to kids, while it examines additional aggressive steps to stem the troubling trend of their use among youth," the statement reads.

Gottlieb said he has been warning e-cigarette companies for more than a year that the government had become concerned that too many young people were using their products but that the industry's response has not done enough to discourage the trend.

"Regardless of what steps they've been taking, the fact remains that the use is continuing to rise,” he said. “It's reached proportions that we are calling an epidemic among teenagers. And so whatever steps they've taken to date hasn't been sufficient to try to stem that growth.”

Juul, one of the most popular manufacturers of liquid tobacco, said in a statement it is committed to working with FDA to prevent teens from using its product, including looking at restricting the available flavors.

"Our mission is to improve the lives of adult smokers by providing them with a true alternative to combustible cigarettes. Appropriate flavors play an important role in helping adult smokers switch. By working together, we believe we can help adult smokers while preventing access to minors, and we will continue to engage with the FDA to fulfill our mission," Juul Chief Executive Officer Kevin Burns said in the statement.

In addition to taking actions to enforce laws about selling tobacco to minors and pursuing new regulations on e-cigarettes, the FDA is launching a campaign to educate young people about the risks associated with nicotine.

It will be the first time the FDA launches a campaign specifically targeted at teenagers, Gottlieb said, including placing information in school bathrooms.

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iStock/Thinkstock(LONDON) -- A British runner is adding a level to what it means to be a supermom after she stopped during a 106-mile race to breastfeed her baby.

Sophie Power of London recently ran the Ultra-Trail Mont Blanc event in the Alps between France, Italy and Switzerland. Sixteen hours in, the 36-year-old mom of two stopped to nurse her 3-month-old son, Cormac. The moment was caught in a much-discussed photo.

"It was very much a picture of me juggling everything that mothers do and I didn't think anything of it," Power told "Good Morning America" about the image of her breastfeeding.

Power said she stopped at Courmayeur, a town in northern Italy, to feed her child where he was waiting with her husband. Since her body is attuned to Cormac's schedule of eating every three hours, Power said she started by hand-extracting her breastmilk during the ultramarathon.

Later in the event, Power's husband gave her a breast pump and he would bring the milk back to Cormac.

Power, who finished the race in 43 hours and 33 minutes, said she is thrilled the photo of her breastfeeding is inspiring mothers across the globe.

"Now that it's gone viral, for me, it's fantastic that there's a platform for women to speak about the struggles they have of breastfeeding and being a new mom because it's really hard," she explained. "I've had thousands of positive comments."

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WJTN Headlines for Sept. 20, 2018

There are problems with an overpopulation of deer in some parts of Jamestown, but now there is also an issue with the predators that hunt them....     That was brought into c...

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